Penerapan Cooperative Learning pada Materi Melukis

Saturday, 23 October 2010 (14:17) | 819 views | Print this Article

Oleh ROTO (Ketua Umum Agupena Kabupaten Semarang)
MENURUT Paul Klee, seni tidak menggambarkan sesuatu yang dilihat namun harus menjadikan terlihat. Seni bukan sekedar refleksi hal-hal yang kasat mata, tetapi dari inner word (alam batin/alam kejiwaan yang semula tidak tampak menjadi tampak). Dengan kata lain, seni bukan sekedar pernyataan kembali kenyataan dari alam, melainkan perwujudan dari sesuatu yang semula tidak berwujud, seperti suasana batin gembira, marah dan sebagainya (dalam Suwaji Bastomi, 1992: 10).

Pemahaman sederhana pengertian seni lukis adalah ungkapan olah rasa/olah batin yang diwujudkan dengan media utama pewarna. Pewarna yang dapat digunakan meliputi cat air, cat kayu, cat tembok, krayon, dan cat minyak. Pada dasarnya semua orang dapat melukis. Persoalannya terletak pada kualitas karya.

Penekanan utama melukis adalah memberi keleluasaan pada peserta didik agar berani mengekspresikan jiwanya sebebas-bebasnya. Dapat diartikan mewujudkan seni untuk seni (fine art) dalam arti mewujudan karya lukisnya tanpa menghiraukan atau tidak mempertimbangkan kegunaan, melainkan mementingkan kebebasan jiwa untuk mencapai kepuasan.

Jiwa yang diungkapkan bisa pengalaman batin yang dirasakan saat itu. Misalnya pengalaman kegembiraan atau pengalaman menyedihkan. Dan atau menangkap kejadian yang sedang in diluar dirinya. Misalnya tentang bencana banjir Wasior, musibah kecelakaan kereta api, kecelakaan lalu lintas, peristiwa demonstrasi, suasana sekolah, suasana pasar, dan lain-lain.

Penerapan Cooperative Learning

Pada kesempatan ini, penulis hendak memaparkan materi melukis media utama pewarna krayon/pastel pada siswa tingkat SMP/MTs dengan penerapan metode cooperative learning (belajar kelompok). Pendekatan metode cooperative learning dapat diartikan suatu cara belajar dengan membentuk kelompok antara 4 sampai dengan 5 orang peserta didik.

Penelitian dari Trish Baker dan Jill Clark menyatakan: “… bahwa pengembangan keterampilan tim adalah hasil paling penting dari pembelajaran kooperatif. Pembelajaran kooperatif dalam banyak hal terlihat lebih efektif daripada metode pembelajaran individu dan pembelajaran kompetitif (Ayhan Dikici, 2006).

Dengan pendekatan metode cooperative learning dalam menyajikan materi melukis, diharapkan peserta didik dapat menemukan cara yang tepat untuk meningkatkan kualitas kegiatan belajar mengajar (KBM) dan kualitas praktik melukis. Selanjutnya peserta didik dapat melaksanakan tugas yang diberikan oleh guru berkait dengan materi melukis khususnya dan materi seni rupa pada umumnya mampu meningkat secara signifikan.

Adapun langkah-langkah penerapan metode cooperative learning materi melukis yang dapat dijadikan rujukan adalah melalui tahapan: Pertama, menjelaskan pengertian seni lukis dan dilanjutkan mendemonstrasikan proses melukis serta menunujukkan alat peraga berupa contoh hasil lukis koleksi internasional, nasional dan koleksi karya siswa pada periode sebelumnya. Dengan menunjukkan karya lukis peserta didik tahun sebelumnya dapat merangsang siswa berikutnya.

Kedua, menjelaskan pengertian cooperative learning. Buatlah kelompok belajar dengan cara menggabungkan meja kursi posisi melingkar, antara 4 sampai dengan 5 orang. Ketiga, menjelaskan sifat-sifat pewarna dan cara penggunaannya. Pewarna krayon mempunyai sifat mengkilat, menyala dan tekstur kasar.
Cara penggunaannya, buatlah sketsa dengan pensil sesuai tema yang ditentukan. Setelah sketsa sesuai perteballah dengan spidol hitam. Warnailah dari warna tua menuju ke warna terang. Keempat, memberi kesempatan kepada peserta didik untuk bertanya tentang arti melukis, proses membuat sketsa (menggambar) dan proses mewarna (melukis).

Setelah siswa memahami penjelasan guru, selanjutnya guru menentukan tema melukis dan siswa mulai mengerjakan. Mengingat waktu yang tersedia perminggu hanya 80 menit, tentu pekerjaan siswa belum selesai sesuai dengan apa yang diharapkan. Maka, guru wajib pandai mengatur waktu yang tersedia, agar pekerjaan siswa selesai dan nilainya mencapai criteria ketuntasan minimal (KKM).

Pengalaman penulis dalam melaksanakna KBM pada pertemuan pertama pekerjaan peserta didik baru mencapai sekitar 60 persen, yaitu berupa sketsa dan sebagian yang lain sudah mewarna. Padahal target yang diharapkan pekerjaan siswa mencapai 85 sampai 100 persen. Maka perlu dilakukan refleksi, selanjutnya guru menjelaskan langkah-langkah berikutnya berupa pemberian motivasi, agar pada pertemuan kedua target yang diinginkan tercapai.

Pada pertemuan kedua setelah dilakukan evaluasi dan dorongan (motivasi) secara umum pekerjaan siswa baru mencapai 65 persen sampai dengan 80 persen. Maka, perlu direfleksi kembali dan dilakukan perbaikan pada pertemuan ketiga, guna menentukan langkah-langkah selanjutnya. Mengingat, target yang dicanangkan guru belum tercapai batas tuntas KKM, maka perbaikannya, dilanjutkan pada pertemuan ketiga.

Berdasarkan evaluasi secara umum dan secara khusus serta penguatan dari guru disetiap pertemuan (satu, dua dan tiga), ternyata karya siswa telah dapat memenuhi KKM minimal 85 persen terpenuhi. Simpulannya, pelaksanaan materi melukis dengan penerapan metode cooperative learning terbukti selalu menunjukkan grafik peningkatan yang signifikan.

ROTO, Pendidik Seni Rupa pada SMP 1 Sumowono, Mahasiswa Pascasarjana UMS.

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