Ijtihad Politik Guru Bangsa

Sunday, 6 March 2011 (09:14) | 667 views | Print this Article

Oleh : Karim Suryadi


Karim Suryadi
KEPERGIAN mantan Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid atau akrab dikenal dengan nama Gus Dur telah menyisakan rasa kehilangan yang mendalam bagi warga Nahdliyin dan bangsa Indonesia. Namun demikian, Gus Dur meninggalkan warisan dan keteladanan dalam membangun umat, menata negara-bangsa, dan menawarkan berbagai alternatif solusi atas masalah yang dihadapi bangsa ini.
Keluasan ilmu, komitmen terhadap pemberdayaan masyarakat –termasuk di dalamnya masyarakat minoritas– dan sensitivitas terhadap budaya, menggenapkan kelebihan Abdurrahman Wahid dari segi nasab. Kelebihan-kelebihan inilah yang membuat cucu Kiai Hasyim Asy’ari ini menjadi tokoh Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) paling menonjol pada masa ini.

Gus Dur adalah salah seorang tokoh pionir dalam menabur benih-benih demokrasi. Di bawah kepemimpinannya, NU mulai menggarap kekuatan civil society, sebuah kekuatan masyarakat yang semula terpinggirkan, namun kemudian terbukti menjadi kekuatan prodemokrasi yang konstan.

Meski hanya menjadi presiden selama 21 bulan, banyak hal telah dilakukan Gus Dur. Dari perspektif komunikasi politik, tiga hal menjadi warisan fenomenal Gus Dur ketika yang bersangkutan menjadi presiden, yakni bingkai wacana, informalitas komunikasi politik, dan pilihan bahasa politik itu sendiri.

Demokrasi dan penguatan masyarakat sipil menjadi dasar pemerintahan Gus Dur. Hal ini terlihat dari wacana dan langkah-langkah politik yang dilakukannya selama 21 bulan memimpin negara ini.

Ide membangun kemandirian masyarakat sehingga tidak bergantung sepenuhnya kepada negara (otonomi relatif warga negara), menjadi gagasan besar Gus Dur. Gagasan tadi diterjemahkan ke dalam wacana supremasi sipil, kemerdekaan pers dan kebebasan berbicara, pembelaan hak minoritas, penguatan posisi masyarakat di hadapan negara, supremasi hukum, dan deformalisasi Islam.

Selain mengembangkan wacana di atas, Gus Dur pun melakukan “ijtihad” dalam hal hubungan penguasa dan rakyatnya.

Kepala negara yang sebelumnya “sulit disentuh”, dicitrakan sebagai sosok yang terbuka dan dekat dengan rakyat. Hal ini paling tidak terlihat dari tindakannya dengan mengubah citra sakral istana negara. Perubahan citra istana negara menjadi sesuatu yang dekat dengan rakyat itu tidak pernah terjadi sebelumnya, dan nyaris tidak pernah terulang lagi hingga saat ini.

Komunikasi politik pun dibuat menjadi informal. Informalitas komunikasi politik itu ditunjukkan Gus Dur baik dalam penataan konteks maupun pilihan bahasa politik.

Di dalam era pemerintahannya muncul frase yang sangat populer “gitu aja kok repot”. Ungkapan ini digunakan Gus Dur untuk menanggapi berbagai kritik dan sindirian yang ditujukan kepadanya.

Selain frase tadi, guyonan menjadi ciri khas komunikasi politik Abdurrahman Wahid. Guyonan khas ala pesantren, bukan hanya digunakan ketika Gus Dur berbicara dengan pendukung fanatiknya (yang umumnya warga Nahdliyin), tetapi juga ketika berkomunikasi dengan kalangan luas. Beragam anekdotnya terkesan main-main, meski bila dikaji tidak selamanya hanya guyonan. Ketika desakan untuk mundur mulai kencang, Abdurrrahman Wahid menanggapinya dengan santai, “jangankan mundur, wong maju saja saya tidak bisa.”

Di atas segala pilihan bahasa politiknya, Gus Dur lah yang mengangkat istigasah sebagai sikap politik. Sebuah sikap yang merefleksikan keyakinan dalam berpolitik dan kesalehan sekaligus.

Terobosan lainnya yang dilakukan Gus Dur adalah membawa manajemen bergaya pesantren ke lingkungan istana negara. Selain membuka dialog dengan berbagai elemen masyarakat, Gus Dur sering tampil apa adanya. Dia mencitrakan dirinya sebagai prototipe pemimpin bercorak solidarity makers.

Selama masa hidupnya, Gus Dur telah memberi banyak pelajaran. Gus Dur telah berijtihad, dan berusaha keras mewujudkan gagasannya tentang masyarakat yang baik. Kita percaya akan kata-kata Gus Dur bahwa tak mudah mewujudkan kebaikan itu, namun Allah SWT akan memberi pahala yang berlipat.

Prof. Dr. H. Karim Suryadi, S.Pd., M.Si : Guru Besar Komunikasi Politik UPI dan Dekan Fakultas Pendidikan Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial UPI

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Tulisan berjudul "Ijtihad Politik Guru Bangsa" dipublikasikan oleh Admin ISPI (Sunday, 6 March 2011 (09:14)) pada kategori Makalah, Opini, Sosok. Anda bisa mengikuti respon terhadap tulisan ini melalui feed komentar RSS 2.0. Both comments and pings are currently closed.

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